Quantum computing is an integrative area involving the principles of quantum mechanics and applying them to computing, in turn introducing new methods to traditional programming techniques and helping in solving complex problems which can never be solved on classical computers.

Quantum mechanics explains the behavior of matter and light on the scale of atomic and subatomic particles.

Quantum computers are machines that store data and perform computations that are too complex for classical computers by using the laws of quantum physics.

The basic information unit of a quantum computer is called quantum bits or Qubits. Qubits are just like binary bits of classical computers. The binary bit can hold only one position of 0 or 1, but qubits can be in multidimensional state i.e., they can hold superposition of all possible states.

##### THE TWO CONCEPTS OF QUANTUM COMPUTING:

###### SUPERPOSITION:

Superposition is a key concept in quantum computing that allows qubits to exist in multiple states simultaneously, and enables the exponential speedup of certain computational tasks.A combination of all possible states of quantum particles/qubits leads to superposition. In superposition the qubits create complex, multidimensional areas where complex problems can be solved.

In classical computing, a bit can only exist in one of two states, either 0 or 1. In contrast, in quantum computing, a qubit (quantum bit) can exist in a superposition of states, meaning it can simultaneously be in multiple states with different probabilities.

Superposition allows quantum computers to perform certain tasks exponentially faster than classical computers. For example, quantum computers can efficiently factor large numbers, which is a computationally difficult task for classical computers.

To create superposition, a qubit is placed into a quantum state that is a combination of the 0 and 1 states. This is typically done using physical devices such as superconducting circuits, trapped ions, or quantum dots. By manipulating the qubits and their interactions with other qubits, quantum algorithms can be implemented that take advantage of superposition to perform computations in parallel.

###### ENTANGLEMENT:

Entanglement is another fundamental concept in quantum computing. It is a property of multiple qubits that are linked together in such a way that their states become correlated, even when they are separated by a large distance.Entanglement allows quantum computers to perform certain tasks that are impossible for classical computers, such as quantum teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum cryptography.

Entanglement occurs through a process known as a controlled operation, where the transformation to one qubit depends on the state of another qubit. When entangled, qubits influence each other.

For example, if two qubits are entangled, then if the state of one qubit is measured, the state of the other qubit will be determined instantaneously, regardless of the distance between them.

Entanglement is a powerful resource in quantum computing, as it allows for multiple qubits to work together in a highly interconnected way, leading to increased processing power and the ability to perform certain computations more efficiently than classical computers.

Also by the addition of more qubits during entanglement, the processing power of the quantum computers increases and can find solutions to extremely complex problems in a short time with less energy consumption.

##### DECOHERENCE – A MAJOR CHALLENGE TO QUANTUM COMPUTERS

It refers to the loss of coherence or the destruction of the delicate quantum state of a system due to its interaction with its environment.The quantum state can be disturbed when the quantum behavior of qubits which are very sensitive to their environment decays due to vibrations or temperature changes or defects in the physical hardware. This is known as Decoherence. This results in the errors in computations.

To mitigate decoherence, various methods are employed in quantum computing, such as quantum error correction codes, quantum fault tolerance, and quantum noise reduction techniques. These methods allow quantum computations to be performed with a high degree of accuracy and reliability despite the presence of decoherence.

##### WORKING OF A QUANTUM COMPUTER:

- Quantum computers have a very basic structure with no memory or processor.
- All they have are qubits that are stored at a temperature below zero using super-cooled fluids, insulation and vacuum chambers to prevent the qubits from decoherence.
- Signals are transferred to the qubits through microwaves, laser or voltage. And a basic computer is used to send instructions and run the programs.
- The language used in quantum computers is QCL (Quantum computer language), which is similar to C programming language.

##### BENEFITS OF QUANTUM COMPUTING:

A great number of companies are investing in research and development of quantum computing technology which can help in better cyber security, network analysis, data search, vaccine development, power more advanced DNA research, design better investment portfolios, creating better trading simulators and improve fraud detection. Cryptography, Quantum machine learning and better optimization in traffic flows, safer airplane, package deliveries and energy deposits.Quantum computing is a fast and more powerful system. Quantum computers have the potential to make a big impact by solving a variety of extremely complex tasks in shorter duration and with less energy consumption.

At the present times Quantum computing has its limitations as it is in the early stages of development, and there are many technical challenges that must be overcome before it can become a practical. But in the next few years, it is expected to boost the demand for Quantum Computing which will open unthinkable possibilities in the near future.

A great number of companies are investing in research and development of quantum computing technology which can help in better cyber security, network analysis, data search, vaccine development, power more advanced DNA research, design better investment portfolios, creating better trading simulators and improve fraud detection. Cryptography, Quantum machine learning and better optimization in traffic flows, safer airplane, package deliveries and energy deposits.

Quantum computing is a fast and more powerful system. Quantum computers have the potential to make a big impact by solving a variety of extremely complex tasks in shorter duration and with less energy consumption. At the present times Quantum computing has its limitations as it is in the early stages of development, and there are many technical challenges that must be overcome before it can become a practical. But in the next few years, it is expected to boost the demand for Quantum Computing which will open unthinkable possibilities in the near future.